Read the following passage.

Early settlers to the rock less and treeless prairies of the Midwest built comfortable homes of thick grass soil. With simple plows the settlers turned over long, deep rows of heavy sod. Then they shaped the tough earth into large blocks.

Sod houses, strong but dark, were usually about 16 feet in length. The dark inside walls were often covered with grey ashes and pieces of white paper. In the hot months, beautiful wild flowers and strong grasses grew on the sod roof. The settles also places pots of colorful flowers on the thick dirt windowsills. Heavy rains sometimes seeped through small cracks in the sod roofs. After a heavy storm, they shoveled more earth onto leaky roof. One family lived in a sod house for over 70 years.
Functions and Types of Adjective

            While reading the passage we noticed the words like rock less, treeless, comfortable, thick, grassy, simple, long, deep, heavy, large, strong, dark, grey, white, hot, wild etc.
            We also noticed that these words are used with nouns and they modify or add to the meaning of the noun with which they are used.

                Rockless        and      Treeless          Prairies
Adjective                    Adjective        Noun

       Comfortable   Homes    of       Thick               Grassy             Sod
Adjective        Noun               Adjective        Adjective        Noun

            A word that modifies a noun or pronouns known as Adjective.
            Let’s consider another example.
·         Saucer slipped to landing.
·         The huge, shiny, silvery saucer slipped slowly, silently to a soft landing.
In the above two examples the nouns, verbs and prepositions are the same. But the first sentence does not give a clear picture whereas the second sentence tells us the size, the color and the brightness of the saucer. It also tells that it moved slowly and silently and landed softly. This paints clear, specific, concrete picture in our minds.

The extra words used in the second sentence are: The huge, shiny, silvery, slowly, silently, soft. All these words are Adjective.
            An Adjective usually answers one on these questions:
            What kind of?
            How many?

Let’s look at the same example once again.

The huge, shiny, silvery, saucer slipped slowly, silently to a soft landing.

                   What kind of   _____ the huge, shiny
            Which              _____ Silvery
            How many        _____ one
            How                 _____ slowly, silently and softly

Types of Adjectives

An Adjective modifies the noun in various ways. So we can say that there are various types of Adjective.
1.      Articles -    a, an, the
2.      Demonstrative Adjective – This, That, These, Those
3.      Distributive Adjective – Each, Every, Either
4.      Interrogative Adjective – Whose, What, Which
5.      Possessive Adjectives – My, Our, His, Her
6.      Numeral Adjectives – Cardinal-four, six
7.      An Adjective of quality shows the kind of quality or the state of person or a thing; as honest-man, a rich man, a new look
8.      An Adjective of Quantity shows how much of a thing is meant; as some rice, much patience, leaf share
9.      Proper Adjective formed from a proper noun is called a proper Adjective; as, Pakistani pen, English wood, Turkish cap

Position of Adjective

            Adjectives occur most frequently before the nouns they refer to or after linking verbs. However, they also appear in several other positions, not only in relation to nouns and verbs but also in relation to pronouns.
            Position of Adjectives in relation to verbs
·         After linking verbs
Be, seem, appear, look
She looks smart.
·         After certain verbs and their objects, as objective compliments.
This issue has made me furious
All his friends considered him stupid
When such a sentence is changed to the passive voice, the adjective remains in the position after the verb.
                        I have been made furious by this issue.
                        He was considered stupid by all his friends.
·         In the special verb-adjective combination that express a state:
hold tight, stand still, open wide
she held her tight
he was standing still

·         Position of Adjectives in relation to pronouns:
They are searching for something new and stylish.
Did you buy green or blue one?
He is wearing a dress which is ragged one.

Comparison of Adjectives

      Look at the following sentences:
            Shahid is a rich boy.
            Zahid is richer than Shahid.
            Abid is the richest of all.
            First sentence shows that Shahid is a rich boy. Second sentence shows that Zahid is richer then Shahid and third sentence that Abid is the richest of all. This means that there is a comparison in the three sentences. Rich is the positive degree, richer is the comparative degree and richest is the superlative degree.
            Let us see a few more adjectives and the three degrees of comparison.

         Positive                  Comparative             Superlative

        Clever                     Cleverer                 Cleverest
        Weak                      Weaker                  Weakest
        Tall                         Taller                     Tallest
        Large                       Larger                    Largest
        Poor                        Poorer                    Poorest

            All Adjectives do not form their comparatives and superlatives by adding ‘er’ and ‘est’. those Adjectives which consist of two or more than two syllables and those which end in ‘ful’ can be compared by the use of more and most.

Positive                            Comparative               Superlative

Difficult                         More difficult            Most difficult
Cultured                       More cultured            Most cultured
Important                    More important          Most important
Doubtful                       More doubtful           Most doubtful

            A few adjectives are compared irregularly.

Positive                           Comparative               Superlative

Good                           Better                         Best
Bad                             Worse                         Worst
Many                           More                           Most
Much                           More                           Most
Little                           Less                           Least