An Adverb adds something to the meaning of any part of speech except a Noun or a Pronoun.


Adverb of manner:                  quickly, happily, well, hard, fast
Adverb of place:                      here, there, up, soon, yet, still, today
Adverb of time:                       late, ago, now, soon, yet, still, today
Adverb of frequency:                often, twice, always, never seldom
Adverb of certainty:                surely, definitely, certainly
Adverb of degree:                   very, fairly, rather, too
The interrogative Adverb:        when, why, where?
The relative Adverb:               when, where, why-pas, how, while, when, whereas, whereby

Function of Adverb

Adjective is a word which modifies or adds to the meaning of a noun. Likewise the function of Adverb is to modify or add to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

·         Drive carefully
·         Run slowly
·         Eat quickly

In each of these examples an adverb is modifying a verb.
·         Some drivers are very careful.
·         The weather is extremely cold.
·         Kalsoom is too clever.

In these examples adverbs modify adjectives.
·         Driver especially carefully on wet roads.
·         Walk very slowly on slippery places.
·         Shahida reads quickly.

In these examples adverbs modify adverbs.

Position in the Sentence

            Some adverbs can be placed in different positions within a sentence.


                        Quietly the audience rose and left.
                        The audience quietly rose and left.
                        The audience rose and quietly left.
                        The audience rose and left quietly.

But usually an adverb is used near the verb, adjective or adverb. It is qualifying otherwise. It may change the sense of the sentence.


                        She often says she reads
                        She says she often reads

First sentence means she often says that she reads but second sentence means ‘she often reads’.

Signal Words

A wore like very, quite or rather may signal that an adjective or an adverb follow. Such adverbs unlike other adverbs do not move freely in the sentence pattern.
                        They are placed in front of the words they modify.


                        Very happy, quite intelligent, rather boring.


            Many adverbs are formed by adding ‘ly’ to adjectives,


                        Calm                Calmly
                        Clever              Cleverly
                        Hopeful            Hopefully
                        Brave               Bravely

But many adjectives also end in ‘ly’ as the early train, friendly person, untimely death, lovely flower, lonely girl.
So in order to identify a word as an adverb, do not depend entirely upon the ending. Take care that the word qualifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Whereas adjectives always qualify a noun or a pronoun.